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Pulau Hantu Coral Reef Survey Data

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2003

Site name: Hantu West (HW2) Date: 09 July 2003
Shallow transect depth: 0.0m Deep transect depth: 3.0m

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by NUS Marine Bio Lab

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

% cover-deep

Subtotal-deep

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.00
0.00 0.00

Encrusting

ACE

0.00 0.00

Submassive

ACS

0.00 0.00

Digitate

ACD

0.00 0.00

Tabulate

ACT

0.00 0.00

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

0.00
13.29
0.00 1.03

Encrusting

CE

1.95 0.20

Foliose

CF

5.29 0.75

Massive

CM

5.07 0.00

Submassive

CS

0.85 0.04

Mushroom

CMR

0.14 0.04

Millepora

CME

0.00 0.00

Heliopora

CHL

0.00 0.00

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.00
17.31
0.00 22.78

Dead coral with algae

DCA

17.31 22.78

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.00
8.43
0.00 0.23

Sponge

SP

7.30 0.19

Zoanthid

ZO

0.15 0.00

Others

OT

0.99 0.04

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

4.66
16.34
0.00 14.43

Coralline algae

CA

0.24 14.43

Halimeda

HA

0.00 0.00

Macroalgae

MA

11.32 0.00

Turf algae

TA

0.12 0.00

Abiotic

Sand

S

15.43
44.62
0.00 61.53

Rubble

R

20.33 28.34

Silt

SI

8.86 33.19

Rock

RCK

0.00 0.00

Total

100.00

100.00

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Site name: Hantu West (HW1) Date: 30 June 2003
Shallow transect depth: 0.0m Deep transect depth: 3.0m

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by NUS Marine Bio Lab

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

% cover-deep

Subtotal-deep

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.00
0.00 0.00

Encrusting

ACE

0.00 0.00

Submassive

ACS

0.00 0.00

Digitate

ACD

0.00 0.00

Tabulate

ACT

0.00 0.00

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

18.38
43.20
0.00 16.83

Encrusting

CE

0.75 0.27

Foliose

CF

15.57 2.27

Massive

CM

1.87 0.18

Submassive

CS

5.86 0.00

Mushroom

CMR

0.77 14.12

Millepora

CME

0.00 0.00

Heliopora

CHL

0.00 0.00

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.00
37.49
0.00 8.71

Dead coral with algae

DCA

37.49 8.71

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.00
1.39
0.00 0.37

Sponge

SP

0.23 0.18

Zoanthid

ZO

0.00 0.00

Others

OT

1.16 0.18

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

1.68
3.08
0.00 3.07

Coralline algae

CA

0.56 3.07

Halimeda

HA

0.00 0.00

Macroalgae

MA

0.84 0.00

Turf algae

TA

0.00 0.00

Abiotic

Sand

S

0.13
14.84
1.32 71.02

Rubble

R

14.00 69.63

Silt

SI

0.71 0.07

Rock

RCK

0.00 0.00

Total

100.00

100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 11 June 2003
Shallow transect depth: 0.0m Deep transect depth: 3.0m

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by NUS Marine Bio Lab

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

% cover-deep

Subtotal-deep

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.00
0.00 0.00

Encrusting

ACE

0.00 0.00

Submassive

ACS

0.00 0.00

Digitate

ACD

0.00 0.00

Tabulate

ACT

0.00 0.00

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

0.00
8.57
0.00 5.49

Encrusting

CE

0.46 1.08

Foliose

CF

4.01 2.40

Massive

CM

2.99 2.01

Submassive

CS

0.87 0.00

Mushroom

CMR

0.24 0.00

Millepora

CME

0.00 0.00

Heliopora

CHL

0.00 0.00

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.00
18.54
0.00 10.96

Dead coral with algae

DCA

18.54 10.96

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.00
5.78
0.00 0.56

Sponge

SP

4.15 0.23

Zoanthid

ZO

0.23 0.00

Others

OT

1.40 0.33

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

7.60
11.46
0.87 3.46

Coralline algae

CA

0.07 2.19

Halimeda

HA

0.00 0.00

Macroalgae

MA

3.79 0.40

Turf algae

TA

0.00 0.00

Abiotic

Sand

S

7.52
55.65
2.98 79.53

Rubble

R

36.60 43.01

Silt

SI

11.53 33.54

Rock

RCK

0.00 0.00

Total

100.00

100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H2) Date: 16 May 2003
Shallow transect depth: 0.0m Deep transect depth: 3.0m

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by NUS Marine Bio Lab

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

% cover-deep

Subtotal-deep

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.51
0.00 0.00

Encrusting

ACE

0.00 0.00

Submassive

ACS

0.00 0.00

Digitate

ACD

0.00 0.00

Tabulate

ACT

0.51 0.00

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

2.21
46.26
0.00 26.22

Encrusting

CE

0.98 2.29

Foliose

CF

27.90 17.90

Massive

CM

3.72 2.84

Submassive

CS

10.29 2.35

Mushroom

CMR

1.16 0.84

Millepora

CME

0.00 0.00

Heliopora

CHL

0.00 0.00

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.00
22.36
0.00 29.57

Dead coral with algae

DCA

22.36 29.57

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.00
4.49
0.00 1.53

Sponge

SP

3.15 0.70

Zoanthid

ZO

0.61 0.00

Others

OT

0.73 0.83

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

5.42
12.84
3.01 4.42

Coralline algae

CA

0.00 0.43

Halimeda

HA

0.00 0.00

Macroalgae

MA

7.41 0.98

Turf algae

TA

0.00 0.00

Abiotic

Sand

S

0.00
13.54
0.08 38.26

Rubble

R

11.29 27.96

Silt

SI

2.25 10.22

Rock

RCK

0.00 0.00

Total

100.00

100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu west fringing reef Date: 9 March 2003
Shallow transect depth: 3.0m Deep transect depth: 7.0m
Scientific Officer: Jani  
Data collected by Reef Friends, Blue Water Volunteers

Benthic Data
Lifeform Shallow- Percentage cover (%) Deep (%)
HC

61.25

9.38
SC 1.88 0.625
RKC 0 0
NIA 0 0
SP 0.63 0.63
RC 13.13 3.75
RB 10.63 21.25
SD 11.88 63.75
SI 0.63 0.63
OT 0 0

Number of Reef Check Target Fish and Invertebrates over four 20m transects

Fish Shallow Deep
Butterflyfish 22 8
Sweetlips 0 0
Barramundi Cod 0 0
Other Groupers (>30cm) 0 0
Napolean Wrasse 0 0
Bumphead parrotfish 0 0
Other parrotfish (>20cm) 0 0
Moray eels 0 0
Snapper 4 0

Invertebrates Shallow Deep
Banded coral shrimp
0 2
Diadema urchin 0 0
Pencil urchin 0 0
Sea cucumber 0 0
Crown of Thorns 0 0
Giant clam 0 0
Triton shell 0 0
Tripnustes 0 0
Lobster 0 0

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2000

Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 28 August 2000
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by Jeffrey Low & Karenne Tun

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

   

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.00
   

Encrusting

ACE

0.00
 

Submassive

ACS

0.00
 

Digitate

ACD

0.00
 

Tabulate

ACT

0.00
 

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

0.00
5.69
   

Encrusting

CE

0.00
 

Foliose

CF

1.87
 

Massive

CM

2.33
 

Submassive

CS

1.06
 

Mushroom

CMR

0.43
 

Millepora

CME

0.00
 

Heliopora

CHL

0.00
 

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.00
24.13
   

Dead coral with algae

DCA

24.13
 

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.00
2.20
   

Sponge

SP

2.20
 

Zoanthid

ZO

0.00
 

Others

OT

0.00
 

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

5.37
10.27
   

Coralline algae

CA

0.63
 

Halimeda

HA

0.06
 

Macroalgae

MA

3.88
 

Turf algae

TA

0.33
 

Abiotic

Sand

S

2.77
57.71
   

Rubble

R

54.33
 

Silt

SI

0.61
 

Rock

RCK

0.00
 

Total

100.00

   

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H2) Date: 28 August 2000
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by Jeffrey Low & Karenne Tun

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

   

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.00
   

Encrusting

ACE

0.00
 

Submassive

ACS

0.00
 

Digitate

ACD

0.00
 

Tabulate

ACT

0.00
 

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

0.00
9.45
   

Encrusting

CE

1.17
 

Foliose

CF

6.03
 

Massive

CM

1.61
 

Submassive

CS

0.49
 

Mushroom

CMR

0.15
 

Millepora

CME

0.00
 

Heliopora

CHL

0.00
 

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.00
14.58
   

Dead coral with algae

DCA

14.58
 

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.00
5.74
   

Sponge

SP

2.33
 

Zoanthid

ZO

0.62
 

Others

OT

2.79
 

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

6.94
19.35
   

Coralline algae

CA

0.00
 

Halimeda

HA

0.00
 

Macroalgae

MA

12.41
 

Turf algae

TA

0.00
 

Abiotic

Sand

S

0.00
50.88
   

Rubble

R

44.75
 

Silt

SI

6.13
 

Rock

RCK

0.00
 

Total

100.00

   

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1998

Site name: Pulau Hantu West (HW2) Date: 02 June 1998(crest) & 13 October 1998(3m)
& 23 September 1998(6m/deep)
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by TMSI

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m

% cover-deep

Subtotal-deep

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Encrusting

ACE

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Submassive

ACS

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Digitate

ACD

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Tabulate

ACT

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

2.39
33.77
0.99
27.52
0.02
15.90
0.04
2.88

Encrusting

CE

4.10
4.53
6.88
1.53

Foliose

CF

18.82
10.83
7.30
0.87

Massive

CM

4.10
5.52
0.62
0.03

Submassive

CS

2.45
3.77
0.02
0.12

Mushroom

CMR

1.91
1.87
1.07
0.13

Millepora

CME

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.16

Heliopora

CHL

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.82
29.08
0.00
34.59
0.18
39.96
0.00
52.66

Dead coral with algae

DCA

28.26
34.59
39.78
52.66

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.00
7.77
0.11
5.71
0.00
4.29
0.00
5.76

Sponge

SP

1.29
1.76
2.01
2.52

Zoanthid

ZO

0.13
0.24
0.00
0.00

Others

OT

6.35
3.60
2.28
3.24

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

5.02
14.40
8.54
14.43
1.79
10.09
0.69
7.90

Coralline algae

CA

0.06
0.21
8.13
7.21

Halimeda

HA

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Macroalgae

MA

9.32
5.68
0.17
0.00

Turf algae

TA

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Abiotic

Sand

S

0.52
14.98
0.18
17.74
0.52
29.75
5.04
30.80

Rubble

R

14.37
17.56
29.02
25.10

Silt

SI

0.09
0.00
0.21
0.66

Rock

RCK

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Total

100.00

 

100.00

 

100.00

100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 21 January 1998
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 3m

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by TMSI

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

% cover-deep

Subtotal-deep

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Encrusting

ACE

0.00
0.00

Submassive

ACS

0.00
0.00

Digitate

ACD

0.00
0.00

Tabulate

ACT

0.00
0.00

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

0.00
16.61
0.00
12.87

Encrusting

CE

2.43
1.15

Foliose

CF

6.29
7.89

Massive

CM

5.47
1.39

Submassive

CS

2.08
1.55

Mushroom

CMR

0.34
0.89

Millepora

CME

0.00
0.00

Heliopora

CHL

0.00
0.00

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.00
5.09
0.09
16.99

Dead coral with algae

DCA

5.09
16.90

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.00
1.77
0.00
0.26

Sponge

SP

1.51
0.20

Zoanthid

ZO

0.00
0.00

Others

OT

0.26
0.06

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

41.97
48.81
6.79
7.31

Coralline algae

CA

0.00
0.19

Halimeda

HA

0.00
0.00

Macroalgae

MA

6.84
0.33

Turf algae

TA

0.00
0.00

Abiotic

Sand

S

1.71
27.72
15.75
62.57

Rubble

R

24.63
40.74

Silt

SI

1.38
6.08

Rock

RCK

0.00
0.00

Total

100.00

100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H2) Date: 21 January 1998(crest) 22 January 1998(3m)
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 3m

GCRMN Benthic Summary

Replicate: 5 x 20m

Collected by TMSI (Karenne Tun & Jeffrey Low)

Benthic Lifeform Categories

Codes

% cover-crest

Subtotal-crest

% cover-deep

Subtotal-deep

Live coral

Acropora

Branching

ACB

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Encrusting

ACE

0.00
0.00

Submassive

ACS

0.00
0.00

Digitate

ACD

0.00
0.00

Tabulate

ACT

0.00
0.00

Non-Acr

Branching

CB

0.00
26.55
0.00
23.39

Encrusting

CE

1.55
4.37

Foliose

CF

14.21
14.53

Massive

CM

5.64
1.91

Submassive

CS

3.99
1.81

Mushroom

CMR

1.16
0.77

Millepora

CME

0.00
0.00

Heliopora

CHL

0.00
0.00

Dead coral

Dead coral

DC

0.00
8.03
0.10
26.78

Dead coral with algae

DCA

8.03
26.68

Other Fauna

Soft coral

SC

0.15
3.68
0.00
0.97

Sponge

SP

0.73
0.40

Zoanthid

ZO

0.00
0.00

Others

OT

2.80
0.57

Algae

Algal assemblage

AA

30.72
37.03
16.73
16.73

Coralline algae

CA

0.00
0.00

Halimeda

HA

0.00
0.00

Macroalgae

MA

6.31
0.00

Turf algae

TA

0.00
0.00

Abiotic

Sand

S

0.07
24.71
0.12
32.13

Rubble

R

23.80
31.69

Silt

SI

0.84
0.32

Rock

RCK

0.00
0.00

Total

100.00

100.00

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1997

Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 13 June 1997(6m/deep) & 16 June 1997(3m) & 18 June 1997(Crest)
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by TMSI              
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.00
10.20
0.00
12.39
0.00
17.77
0.00
2.55
  Encrusting
CE
0.46
4.13
4.91
1.29
Foliose
CF
4.69
6.10
6.01
0.39
Massive
CM
3.83
1.11
4.86
0.00
Submassive
CS
0.63
0.65
1.89
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
0.59
0.40
0.10
0.86
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
35.54
0.00
24.95
0.00
33.52
0.00
46.64
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
35.54
24.95
33.52
46.64
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
7.68
0.13
4.72
0.00
11.83
0.00
11.41
  Sponge
SP
2.24
3.13
9.02
6.03
Zoanthid
ZO
0.15
0.00
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
5.29
1.46
2.81
5.38
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
4.35
23.05
11.86
12.33
10.03
11.80
1.60
3.22
  Coralline algae
CA
4.58
0.08
0.31
1.49
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.15
0.21
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
12.86
0.05
0.59
0.00
Turf algae
TA
1.26
0.19
0.66
0.13
Abiotic Sand
S
1.49
23.53
3.67
45.61
5.20
25.08
11.67
36.18
  Rubble
R
20.39
41.67
16.93
18.49
Silt
SI
1.65
0.27
2.95
6.02
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H2) Date: 18 June 1997(crest) & 27 August 1997 (3m/6m/deep)    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by TMSI              
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
2.03
41.74
0.00
26.00
0.22
24.92
0.00
5.98
  Encrusting
CE
2.08
0.78
0.56
0.00
Foliose
CF
16.52
17.77
10.77
2.50
Massive
CM
7.87
3.83
4.63
0.51
Submassive
CS
11.53
1.59
2.51
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
1.43
2.04
6.23
2.97
Millepora
CME
0.28
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
26.86
0.00
28.79
0.22
38.62
0.00
39.72
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
26.86
28.79
38.40
39.72
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
1.12
8.00
0.00
2.05
0.00
5.51
0.00
2.33
  Sponge
SP
3.31
2.05
3.90
1.17
Zoanthid
ZO
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.08
Others
OT
3.08
0.00
1.61
1.08
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
4.33
14.97
4.23
6.57
0.96
4.48
0.84
3.67
  Coralline algae
CA
0.19
0.09
3.52
2.64
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
10.44
2.25
0.00
0.19
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
0.90
8.43
6.90
36.59
6.63
26.49
17.81
48.29
  Rubble
R
5.48
29.58
16.24
22.96
Silt
SI
2.05
0.11
3.62
7.53
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Hantu West (HW1) Date: 03 December 1997(crest) & 19 December 1997(3m/6m) & 15 December 1997(deep)
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by TMSI              
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.79
0.07
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.79
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.00
18.99
0.00
18.79
0.00
7.26
0.00
3.74
  Encrusting
CE
1.44
1.77
0.78
0.65
Foliose
CF
6.95
11.68
4.07
2.61
Massive
CM
5.23
2.86
0.12
0.16
Submassive
CS
4.10
1.32
0.75
0.09
Mushroom
CMR
1.27
1.16
1.54
0.23
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
28.56
0.00
25.78
0.00
33.23
0.00
32.12
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
28.56
25.78
33.23
32.12
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
5.40
0.18
1.09
0.00
0.90
0.00
1.06
  Sponge
SP
3.10
0.91
0.84
0.95
Zoanthid
ZO
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
2.24
0.00
0.06
0.11
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
6.60
17.25
0.02
0.55
0.33
1.41
0.00
0.47
  Coralline algae
CA
0.07
0.18
0.51
0.00
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
10.21
0.00
0.00
0.31
Turf algae
TA
0.37
0.35
0.57
0.16
Abiotic Sand
S
5.18
29.01
1.05
53.72
9.44
57.20
21.05
62.61
  Rubble
R
22.36
43.20
33.57
19.43
Silt
SI
1.47
9.47
14.19
22.13
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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1993

Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 06 July 1993(Crest/6m) & 12 July 1993(3m/10m)    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS        
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
1.20
1.20
0.28
0.28
0.12
0.12
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.31
8.98
0.00
15.68
0.00
9.07
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
CE
1.66
4.28
2.15
0.00
Foliose
CF
1.30
8.40
2.98
0.00
Massive
CM
1.83
2.69
3.66
0.00
Submassive
CS
2.63
0.00
0.06
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
1.25
0.31
0.22
0.00
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
21.51
0.00
16.88
0.00
20.56
0.00
10.92
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
21.51
16.88
20.56
10.92
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
5.50
0.32
5.21
0.08
3.92
0.25
14.03
  Sponge
SP
3.45
3.37
3.31
11.32
Zoanthid
ZO
0.55
0.00
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
1.50
1.52
0.53
2.46
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
6.22
17.41
2.97
3.24
0.00
0.15
0.00
0.28
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.27
0.15
0.28
Halimeda
HA
0.11
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
11.08
0.00
0.00
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
4.34
45.40
6.28
58.71
15.68
66.18
12.70
74.77
  Rubble
R
40.77
52.43
50.50
61.99
Silt
SI
0.29
0.00
0.00
0.08
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total
   
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H2) Date: 06 July 1993(Crest/6m) & 13 July 1993(3m/10m)    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS        
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.00
41.10
0.09
32.93
0.00
17.32
0.00
2.44
  Encrusting
CE
2.26
3.61
2.39
0.00
Foliose
CF
13.73
20.41
10.56
0.00
Massive
CM
15.80
4.00
2.00
0.00
Submassive
CS
8.75
3.85
0.51
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
0.56
0.97
1.86
2.44
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.06
16.10
0.00
26.65
0.00
21.01
0.00
9.73
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
16.04
26.65
21.01
9.73
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.14
11.68
0.00
2.05
0.00
2.66
0.00
2.41
  Sponge
SP
6.28
1.23
2.24
2.15
Zoanthid
ZO
2.36
0.00
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
2.90
0.82
0.42
0.26
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
2.98
6.02
0.12
0.26
0.00
0.58
0.00
0.19
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.14
0.58
0.19
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
3.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
2.57
25.10
1.71
38.11
3.69
58.43
45.40
85.23
  Rubble
R
22.53
33.08
50.35
39.83
Silt
SI
0.00
3.32
4.39
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total      
100.00
 
100.00
 
100.00
 
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu West (HW1) Date: 02 Nov 1993(Crest/6m) & 13 July 1993(3m/10m)    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS        
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.39
0.39
0.29
0.29
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.00
41.22
0.74
24.66
0.00
19.67
0.00
1.17
  Encrusting
CE
2.36
2.95
2.08
0.70
Foliose
CF
16.84
14.05
10.13
0.19
Massive
CM
8.83
1.81
3.16
0.00
Submassive
CS
10.63
2.89
1.04
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
2.56
2.01
3.25
0.28
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.21
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
20.71
0.00
31.06
0.00
38.47
0.00
7.68
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
20.71
31.06
38.47
7.68
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
7.67
0.00
1.97
0.00
2.85
0.00
3.61
  Sponge
SP
7.05
0.95
2.82
3.19
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
0.62
1.02
0.03
0.42
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
1.24
9.14
0.63
0.89
0.00
0.95
0.00
0.22
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.26
0.95
0.22
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
7.90
0.00
0.00
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
0.83
20.87
1.74
41.13
4.73
38.05
59.80
87.32
  Rubble
R
19.13
36.36
33.13
27.52
Silt
SI
0.91
3.03
0.19
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu West (HW2) Date: 02 Oct 1993            
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS        
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.11
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
7.44
61.95
0.28
45.21
0.00
36.22
0.00
5.46
  Encrusting
CE
5.38
2.86
4.51
0.93
Foliose
CF
35.97
29.49
22.76
0.72
Massive
CM
6.89
4.57
3.38
0.23
Submassive
CS
5.31
3.95
1.21
0.30
Mushroom
CMR
0.96
4.06
4.35
3.28
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
17.93
0.00
18.38
0.00
21.96
0.00
20.26
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
17.93
18.38
21.96
20.26
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
7.07
0.00
2.99
0.00
1.95
0.06
5.38
  Sponge
SP
0.03
1.50
0.53
2.25
Zoanthid
ZO
0.41
0.09
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
6.63
1.40
1.42
3.07
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.08
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.34
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
0.30
0.00
0.00
0.15
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
Abiotic Sand
S
0.15
12.67
0.85
33.31
0.78
39.86
21.16
68.56
  Rubble
R
12.52
32.46
38.97
47.40
Silt
SI
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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1992

Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 18 Feb 1992(crest/6m) & 28 Jan 1992(3m/10m)    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS        
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.44
8.40
0.00
5.48
0.00
1.83
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
CE
0.82
0.39
0.61
0.00
Foliose
CF
5.03
3.10
0.23
0.00
Massive
CM
1.77
1.90
0.99
0.00
Submassive
CS
0.34
0.09
0.00
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
20.43
0.00
5.73
0.00
13.00
0.00
19.54
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
20.43
5.73
13.00
19.54
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
6.58
0.00
1.42
0.06
0.53
0.00
3.92
  Sponge
SP
4.63
0.74
0.46
3.76
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
1.95
0.68
0.01
0.16
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
3.30
0.00
0.70
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.43
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.04
0.13
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
3.30
0.26
0.00
0.43
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.40
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
8.50
61.29
7.81
86.67
19.77
84.51
36.38
76.11
  Rubble
R
49.49
78.86
64.74
39.73
Silt
SI
3.30
0.00
0.00
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H2) Date: 14 Jan 1992(crest/6m) & 15 Jan 1992(3m/10m)    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS        
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.78
0.78
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
1.02
48.70
0.29
29.19
0.00
7.03
0.00
5.49
  Encrusting
CE
0.00
3.70
0.51
0.62
Foliose
CF
30.30
21.13
4.16
0.00
Massive
CM
8.00
1.79
1.88
2.91
Submassive
CS
9.00
0.91
0.17
0.35
Mushroom
CMR
0.38
1.36
0.31
1.61
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
18.58
0.00
22.51
0.00
31.08
0.00
10.99
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
18.58
22.51
31.08
10.99
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.09
5.04
0.07
2.01
0.00
1.67
0.00
0.45
  Sponge
SP
1.72
1.40
1.42
0.45
Zoanthid
ZO
0.21
0.00
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
3.02
0.54
0.25
0.00
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
10.56
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.30
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
10.32
0.25
0.00
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.24
0.00
0.00
0.30
Abiotic Sand
S
6.41
17.12
3.62
45.26
7.16
60.19
27.86
82.77
  Rubble
R
10.71
40.16
52.24
53.70
Silt
SI
0.00
1.47
0.79
1.21
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu West (HW1) Date: 26 Feb 1992(crest) & 25 Feb 1992(3m/6m/10m)    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS        
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.00
37.29
0.00
28.01
0.00
16.43
0.00
0.29
  Encrusting
CE
0.43
0.70
0.19
0.00
Foliose
CF
19.69
16.79
11.99
0.13
Massive
CM
7.88
4.45
1.98
0.10
Submassive
CS
7.73
4.79
1.05
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
1.56
1.28
1.22
0.06
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
33.89
0.00
29.99
0.00
39.17
0.00
11.58
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
33.89
29.99
39.17
11.58
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
7.03
0.00
2.36
0.00
1.61
0.00
0.30
  Sponge
SP
5.42
1.55
0.84
0.30
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
1.61
0.81
0.77
0.00
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
1.41
0.00
1.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.07
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
1.41
1.02
0.00
0.07
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
0.20
20.38
0.88
38.62
0.00
42.79
61.80
87.76
  Rubble
R
12.91
26.25
28.59
25.96
Silt
SI
7.27
11.49
14.20
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu West (HW2) Date: 26 Feb 1992(crest) & 24 Feb 1992(3m/6m/10m)    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 10m        
                       
GCRMN Benthic Summary         
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS        
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
2.73
2.73
0.65
0.65
0.25
0.25
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
7.43
61.15
1.00
47.74
0.00
36.17
0.00
5.50
  Encrusting
CE
2.30
1.39
0.81
1.31
Foliose
CF
39.39
31.90
25.05
2.30
Massive
CM
3.24
2.82
3.04
0.53
Submassive
CS
7.83
5.72
1.64
0.37
Mushroom
CMR
0.96
4.91
5.63
0.99
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
22.98
0.00
26.07
0.00
38.08
0.00
27.54
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
22.98
26.07
38.08
27.54
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.13
4.45
0.00
4.03
0.00
4.41
0.13
0.89
  Sponge
SP
1.31
0.64
2.85
0.29
Zoanthid
ZO
0.55
0.14
0.00
0.20
Others
OT
2.46
3.25
1.56
0.27
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
0.14
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.15
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
0.14
0.00
0.00
0.15
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
0.00
8.55
0.62
21.51
1.21
21.09
12.82
65.92
  Rubble
R
7.53
18.51
16.64
48.86
Silt
SI
1.02
2.38
3.24
4.24
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

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1988

Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 01 Mar 1988    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 6m
               
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.31
0.31
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
14.13
30.74
0.00
3.89
  Encrusting
CE
7.68
1.19
Foliose
CF
3.51
0.00
Massive
CM
3.42
2.24
Submassive
CS
1.57
0.45
Mushroom
CMR
0.43
0.00
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.42
13.80
0.00
20.08
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
13.38
20.08
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
6.98
11.27
0.09
3.55
  Sponge
SP
1.47
1.30
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
2.83
2.16
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
14.09
0.00
1.14
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.00
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
13.73
1.09
Turf algae
TA
0.37
0.05
Abiotic Sand
S
11.04
29.78
15.43
71.34
  Rubble
R
18.21
55.36
Silt
SI
0.21
0.21
Rock
RCK
0.31
0.34
Total    
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H2) Date: 22 Mar 1988    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 6m
               
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
1.14
49.19
0.00
3.75
  Encrusting
CE
11.79
0.82
Foliose
CF
15.87
0.88
Massive
CM
9.59
0.00
Submassive
CS
9.75
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
1.06
2.05
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
15.43
0.00
14.54
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
15.43
14.54
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
1.51
0.24
1.10
  Sponge
SP
0.66
0.60
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
0.84
0.26
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
7.28
0.00
0.63
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.63
Halimeda
HA
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
7.28
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
15.51
26.58
8.99
79.98
  Rubble
R
10.02
66.54
Silt
SI
1.06
4.45
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu West (HW1) Date: 12 Aug 1988
  Deep transect depth: 6m
           
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-6m
Subtotal-6m
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.10
7.78
  Encrusting
CE
0.86
Foliose
CF
3.54
Massive
CM
0.19
Submassive
CS
1.67
Mushroom
CMR
1.42
Millepora
CME
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
57.05
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
57.05
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.10
2.76
  Sponge
SP
0.99
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
Others
OT
1.67
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
4.47
  Coralline algae
CA
4.47
Halimeda
HA
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
13.50
27.95
  Rubble
R
14.45
Silt
SI
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
Total    
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu West (HW2) Date: 12 Sep 1988    
Shallow transect depth: 0m crest Deep transect depth: 6m
               
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-crest
Subtotal-crest
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
5.32
70.35
0.00
22.50
  Encrusting
CE
5.12
6.30
Foliose
CF
48.99
11.40
Massive
CM
5.02
0.20
Submassive
CS
3.41
2.20
Mushroom
CMR
2.51
2.40
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
18.31
0.00
73.80
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
18.31
73.80
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.40
4.51
0.00
1.50
  Sponge
SP
1.60
0.90
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
2.51
0.60
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
0.20
0.00
0.80
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
0.80
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
0.20
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.00
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
3.61
6.62
1.40
1.40
  Rubble
R
1.20
0.00
Silt
SI
1.81
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00

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1987

Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 16 February 1987
  Deep transect depth: 10.0m
           
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by NUS Marine Bio Lab
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-deep
Subtotal-deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.00
0.35
  Encrusting
CE
0.13
Foliose
CF
0.22
Massive
CM
0.00
Submassive
CS
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
0.00
Millepora
CME
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
1.09
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
1.09
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.15
2.73
  Sponge
SP
1.15
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
Others
OT
1.43
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
2.03
  Coralline algae
CA
1.89
Halimeda
HA
0.01
Macroalgae
MA
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.13
Abiotic Sand
S
40.34
93.80
  Rubble
R
53.46
Silt
SI
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
Total      
100.00

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Site name: Hantu West (HW1) Date: 04 May 1987
  Deep transect depth: 10.0m
           
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by NUS Marine Bio Lab
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-deep
Subtotal-deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
0.30
4.01
  Encrusting
CE
1.81
Foliose
CF
0.30
Massive
CM
0.12
Submassive
CS
0.00
Mushroom
CMR
1.48
Millepora
CME
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.50
43.82
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
43.32
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
1.13
  Sponge
SP
0.39
Zoanthid
ZO
0.39
Others
OT
0.35
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
0.00
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
Halimeda
HA
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
0.00
Turf algae
TA
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
51.03
51.03
  Rubble
R
0.00
Silt
SI
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
Total    
100.00

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1986

Site name: Pulau Hantu (H1) Date: 18 Apr 1986    
   
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
   
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
   
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
 
Submassive
ACS
0.00
 
Digitate
ACD
0.00
 
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
 
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
1.76
27.66
   
  Encrusting
CE
1.54
 
Foliose
CF
15.09
 
Massive
CM
4.12
 
Submassive
CS
3.63
 
Mushroom
CMR
1.52
 
Millepora
CME
0.00
 
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
 
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
11.69
   
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
11.69
 
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
1.33
   
  Sponge
SP
0.11
 
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
 
Others
OT
1.22
 
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
0.17
   
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
 
Halimeda
HA
0.00
 
Macroalgae
MA
0.17
 
Turf algae
TA
0.00
 
Abiotic Sand
S
24.76
59.15
   
  Rubble
R
32.34
 
Silt
SI
2.05
 
Rock
RCK
0.00
 
Total    
100.00
   

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Site name: Pulau Hantu (H2) Date: 09 May 1986(3m) & 09 Dec 1986(10m)
  Deep transect depth: 10m
               
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
% cover-Deep
Subtotal-Deep
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
0.00
Submassive
ACS
0.00
0.00
Digitate
ACD
0.00
0.00
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
0.00
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
4.66
50.71
0.00
5.49
  Encrusting
CE
1.80
0.53
Foliose
CF
29.51
1.97
Massive
CM
4.30
0.29
Submassive
CS
7.82
0.01
Mushroom
CMR
2.62
2.69
Millepora
CME
0.00
0.00
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
0.00
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
4.53
0.00
5.75
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
4.53
5.75
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
6.57
1.34
  Sponge
SP
0.29
0.62
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
0.00
Others
OT
6.29
0.72
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
10.93
12.37
0.40
0.70
  Coralline algae
CA
0.26
0.30
Halimeda
HA
0.00
0.00
Macroalgae
MA
0.00
0.00
Turf algae
TA
1.18
0.00
Abiotic Sand
S
6.04
25.81
26.87
86.72
  Rubble
R
19.77
59.85
Silt
SI
0.00
0.00
Rock
RCK
0.00
0.00
Total    
100.00
100.00

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Site name: Pulau Hantu West (HW1) Date: 16 May 1986    
   
GCRMN Benthic Summary 
Replicate: 5 x 20m Collected by Reef Ecology Study Team, NUS
Benthic Lifeform Categories
Codes
% cover-3m
Subtotal-3m
   
Live coral Acropora Branching
ACB
0.00
0.00
   
  Encrusting
ACE
0.00
 
Submassive
ACS
0.00
 
Digitate
ACD
0.00
 
Tabulate
ACT
0.00
 
  Non-Acr Branching
CB
3.65
64.00
   
  Encrusting
CE
2.78
 
Foliose
CF
41.01
 
Massive
CM
6.85
 
Submassive
CS
8.58
 
Mushroom
CMR
1.13
 
Millepora
CME
0.00
 
Heliopora
CHL
0.00
 
Dead coral Dead coral
DC
0.00
9.07
   
  Dead coral with algae
DCA
9.07
 
Other Fauna Soft coral
SC
0.00
0.98
   
  Sponge
SP
0.00
 
Zoanthid
ZO
0.00
 
Others
OT
0.98
 
Algae Algal assemblage
AA
0.00
0.00
   
  Coralline algae
CA
0.00
 
Halimeda
HA
0.00
 
Macroalgae
MA
0.00
 
Turf algae
TA
0.00
 
Abiotic Sand